With return character:

#include <Process.h>
void setup() {
 Bridge.begin();  // Initialize Bridge
}
void loop() {
 int temperature = random(0, 100);
 Process p;              
 p.begin("/mnt/sda1/db.php");      
 p.addParameter(String(temperature)); 
 while (p.running());
 while (p.available()) {
    char c = p.read();
    Serial.print(c);
 }
 delay(1000); 
}

With return integer:

#include <Process.h>
void setup() {
 Bridge.begin();  // Initialize Bridge
}
void loop() {
 int temperature = random(0, 100);
 Process p;              
 p.begin("/mnt/sda1/db.php");      
 p.addParameter(String(temperature)); 
 while (p.running());
 while (p.available()) {
    int result = p.parseInt();          // look for an integer
    Serial.println(result);       // print the number as well
 }
 delay(1000); 
}